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1. Disease of conjunctiva
Conjunctivitis : Inflammation/infection of conjunctiva (Eye flue).
Pterygium : Thickening of conjunctiva and infilteration into cornea
2. Corneal ulcer : Infection of cornea (the black portion of eye) producing ulceration. It is of 3 types commanly bacterial, viral, fungal.
3. Uveitis : Inflammation of inner coats of eye ball (Uvea) it produces pain, decrease of vision, congestion of eye.
4. Cataract : (Safed Motia) opacification of normal crystalline lens of eye is known as cataract. It produces gradual painless loss of vision. It may be.
  • Age related (most common) (Senile cataract)
  • Congenital i.e, present from birth
  • Traumatic
  • Complicated
5. Glaucoma : (Kala motia) Increase in the tension of eye ball due to blockage of outflow channels is known as glaucoma. It causes permanent loss of vision, if untreated. It may present as sudden painfull loss of vision or gradual painless loss of vision (OAG). It is of two types, acute glaucoma (ACG), chronic simple or open angle glaucoma (OAG)
6. Refractive errors : Presence of spectacle numbers is known as refractive errors.
Types :
  • Myopia : Presence of minus spherical number in the eye.
  • Hypermetropia : presence of plus spherical number in the eye.
  • Astigmatism : presence of minus or plus cylndrical number in the eye
7. Diseases of retina and vitreous :
  • ARMD : (Age related mucular degeneration) This is degeneration of central part of retina after 50 years of age. Patient cannot see at the centre peripheral vision is clear.
  • Diabetic retinopathy : This occurs in diabetic patients. There is formation of blood vessels in the retina. These vessels leak and produce decrease in vision, bleeding in retina/vitreous.
  • CRVO/BRVO : Blockage of one of veins of retina {central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)}. It causes sudden painless loss of vision.
  • Retinal detatchment : Separation of retina from underlying layers. Patient experiences flashes of light, floaters, sudden pain less loss of vision.
  • Vitreous Hemorrhage : Bleeding into the vitreous. Diabetes is common cause.
8. Disease of optic nerve :
  • Optic Neuritis : Inflammation of nerve carrying information from eye to brain. Patient complains of sudden loss of vision with or without pain.
  • Optic Atrophy : Permanent damage of optic nerve, glaucoma is common cause.
9. Squint : When one of the eye deviates inwards, outwards, upwards or downwards, condition is known as Squint. Types:- Horizontal Squint Convergent Squint (deviation of eye inwards) , Divergent Squint: (deviation of eye outwards), Vertical Squint: deviation of eye up or down.
10. Disease of lids/orbit/lacrimal appratus :
  • Entropion : Inward turning of eyelid margins. This produces irritation because of rubbing of eye lashes.
  • Ectropion : Outward turning of eyelid margins. This produces watering from eye.
  • Ptosis : Drooping of upper eyelid. Usually condition is from birth.
  • Chlazion : Swelling over eyelid due to blockage of oil ducts of eyelid.
  • Orbital cellulitis : Swelling of orbital tissues due to inflammation. It produce pain, swelling around eye.
  • Nasolactimal duct (NLD) Blockage : Present from birth, it causes watering from eye of the child (epiphora.)
  • Dacryocystis : NLD blockage in adults produces inflammation of lacrimal Sac producing watering form eye an swelling near the inner edge of the eye.
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